The jpoc guide to pharmacies in Germany.
Parmacies are known as "Apotheker" in Germany. Of course, this is the same word as the English apothecary and it is the word in current use from the Netherlands and across Germany, Poland and Russia.
In any German city, there will always be one or two pharmacies open around the clock. When open, they offer a full service so you can go in for a pack of paracetamol as well as for prescription drugs.
Sometimes, the duty Apotheker is indicated by signs in the shop windows. In other cities, there is a printed rota that you need to pick up from a shop when it is open. Of course, one of your first duties on arriving in a new city will be to identify which method is in operation and to collect a rota if necessary.
The staff in these shops seem to be trained to a high level and will recommend products to you if necessary.
Normally, you will find somebody who can speak a little English in these shops but if you do not, unless you are stuck with the only shop on all night duty, my recommendation is that you move on to another shop. The problems that might arise from a misunderstanding are just too bad to think about.
The names of drugs themselves are fairly standard. Aspirin is Apsirin and Paracetamol is Paracetamol. But other names are not the same. So, for example, cough mixture is Hustensyrop.